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Beyond the Color Line:

Models of Racial Integration

By Mario H. Guerreiro

In April 2006, Pentecostal believers from around the world gathered in Los Angeles to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Azusa Street Revival. A century earlier, the event that precipitated this historic gathering began with little fanfare or public notice. While significant from our vantage point, early 20th-century journalists were not particularly impressed. In fact, many felt the tenement-based revival scarcely warranted mainstream media attention. This anonymity proved short lived. As both attendance and manifestations of the Holy Spirit increased, secular journalists were drawn to the meetings and coverage evolved in a highly prejudicial fashion. Headlines from Los Angeles area newspapers reported “arrant tomfoolery” and “religious mania.”1 One newspaper reporter indicated, “There were all ages, sexes, colors, nationalities, and previous conditions of servitude.”2

At a time when segregation was the norm, this demonstration of racial unity was particularly alarming. William J. Seymour, an African-American pastor who served as one of the leaders of the mission, believed that God was “blending all races and nations into one common family in the Lord.” Eyewitness observers, such as Frank Bartleman, echoed this observation claiming, “The color line has been washed away in the blood.”3

Clearly, the Pentecostal movement was birthed in an atmosphere of racial reconciliation. Why, then, was its ethos of unity short lived? Was this element of the Movement firmly rooted on biblical principles? If so, how can 21st-century church leaders dealing with rapidly shifting demographic realities empower Seymour’s vision of one common family in the Lord?

Many successful models of racial integration are being employed in Assemblies of God churches across the United States. We need to look at the pros and cons of various models as well as their applicability in various ministry contexts.

The Great Commission compels believers to “go into all the world and preach the Gospel” (Mark 16:15, NASB),4 but few pastors are prepared to deal with the unique challenges that occur when the world comes to them. Changing immigration patterns and an increasingly mobile society have brought about dramatic changes in the ethnic composition of American communities. As new people groups are introduced to the gospel, integration of these racially and culturally unique peoples is changing the formerly homogeneous face of our congregations.

As the national immigration policy debate rages on, church leaders should seriously consider their mission and policies regarding this emotionally charged and potentially divisive issue. As Christian leaders, we have an obligation to carefully examine our attitudes toward minorities to ensure that our response is built on a solid understanding of biblical principles, rather than blind adherence to any particular political ideology.

It would be naive to assume that American churches exist in a vacuum, that their beliefs and attitudes toward minority newcomers are radically different from those of the world. The challenge for the church is to act and behave in a manner contrary to our social and historical norms. It is critical that we model and lead from a biblical perspective.

The church is called to be a prophetic voice concerning racial integration and may well play an important role in ensuring racial harmony as sweeping demographic trends shift the balance of power in years to come. An article in Time states: “A truly multiracial society will undoubtedly prove much harder to govern. Even seemingly race-free conflicts will be increasingly complicated by an overlay of ethnic tension. For example, the expected showdown in the early 21st century between the rising number of retirees and the dwindling number of workers who must be taxed to pay for the elders’ Social Security benefits will probably be compounded by the fact a large majority of recipients will be white, whereas a majority of workers paying for them will be nonwhite.”5

The church has a tremendous opportunity to help newcomers develop a Christian identity that supersedes nationalism. The future of America may depend on the church’s ability to help immigrants adopt a value system that is shaped by Judeo-Christian ideals. Many immigrants are drawn to the American way of life because they value its emphasis on freedom and democracy. Because of this attraction, the Christian lifestyle and its institutions have tremendous potential to influence minorities both as citizens and as believers. Christian leaders must be prepared to address issues concerning Christian identity and nationalism, and to teach, train, and provide opportunities for integration and healing. The future of American society may well be in our hands.

Does God Give A Mandate For Inclusion Within The Church?

Inclusion was an integral theme of Christ’s earthly ministry. He sought to provide life-changing opportunities for everyone. The qualifications for membership in His group were simple: “Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned” (Mark 16:16).

Salvation was the entry point into a community of believers whose existence was governed by a passionate commitment to Christ. His message of inclusion became the engine behind the Early Church’s expansion. Fueled by the baptism in the Holy Spirit, the homogeneous group of disciples who had gathered in the Upper Room in Acts 2 set out on a first-century “mission impossible.” They were to provide the catalyst for fulfillment of the Great Commission: to “make disciples of all nations” (Matthew 28:19).

The disciples inherited a commission of seemingly insurmountable proportions. In a world sharply divided by religion and language, they were to make disciples. Then, as now, the Holy Spirit provided empowerment for ministry. Jerusalem was the setting for a scene that caused as much uproar in the first century as the Azusa Street Revival did in the 20th century. People from multiple races and languages were present: “Utterly amazed, they asked: ‘Are not all these men who are speaking Galileans? Then how is it that each of us hears them in his own native language? Parthians, Medes and Elamites; residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene; visitors from Rome (both Jews and converts to Judaism); Cretans and Arabs — we hear them declaring the wonders of God in our own tongues!’ ” (Acts 2:7–11).

It is unlikely that the disciples could have anticipated what would happen next. Peter’s bold proclamation of the gospel led to a dramatic and instantaneous transformation of the fellowship. A movement that had been largely homogeneous welcomed 3,000 diverse believers in a single day: “The opening of the fellowship of the children of God to uncircumcised, untaught, heathen (Gentiles) was a completely new concept for which there had been no precedent. The spreading of the gospel had moved from the purest Palestinian Jews to the Greek-influenced Hellenists to the Samaritans and the Ethiopian eunuch — all with the Holy Spirit’s strong influence.”6

Seemingly overnight, God moved the young church from a homogeneous model to a new paradigm. It is clear that all believers were part of the same Body and that God’s intent was for them to coexist under the diverse leadership He chose. As early as Acts 6 we see God’s intent for an inclusive Body as the disciples dealt with the inevitable stresses of this transition: “In those days when the number of disciples was increasing, the Grecian Jews among them complained against the Hebraic Jews because their widows were being overlooked in the daily distribution of food” (Acts 6:1).

Mission, values, and leadership needed adjustment to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse body. Yet the apostles remained firmly committed to God’s unified vision for the church. They did not suggest separate bodies, but instead appointed inclusive leadership chosen from within the group: “ ‘Brothers, choose seven men from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom. We will turn this responsibility over to them and will give our attention to prayer and the ministry of the word.’ This proposal pleased the whole group. They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit; also Philip, Procorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolas from Antioch, a convert to Judaism” (Acts 6:3–5).

By Acts 13, Antioch has a fully functioning ekklesia. The church was not only diverse in its membership, but also in its leadership. “In the church at Antioch there were prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen (who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch) and Saul” (Acts 13:1).

God’s passion for inclusion extends well beyond the moment of salvation. His desire is for all people to become productive members of His body, regardless of ethnicity. Our mission is not to evangelize to pile up points on some heavenly checklist. No, the by-product of our evangelistic efforts must be to enter into relationships and build community despite cultural differences: “A disciple is not simply one who has been taught but one who continues to learn.”7 In fact, the nature of this commission implies a long-term commitment to one another.

Why Integrate? A Look Into The Future

According to the Census Bureau, the U.S. foreign-born population is 33.5 million, representing 11.7 percent of the population. Among the foreign born, 53 percent are Latin American, 25 percent are Asian, 14 percent are European, and the remaining 8 percent migrated from other regions of the world. Immigrants from both Latin America and Asia are more likely to live in the West, while Central Americans are concentrated in the West and the South. In comparison, immigrants from the Caribbean and South America are concentrated in the Northeast and the South.8

Figure 1 shows the growth in minority populations by region since 1980. The West leads with a 15.1 percent increase, but even the Midwest experienced a 6.1 percent growth rate. The overall average for the four regions was at 9.9 percent. This demonstrates the national impact of this phenomenon.

As their numbers increase, foreign-born residents are becoming increasingly mobile. By 2000, nearly one-third of U.S. immigrants resided outside established settlement states. Seeking an escape from the cost and congestion of urban areas and because of the availability of jobs elsewhere, immigrants are increasingly leaving traditional gateway states in search of better opportunities.

Thirteen states — including many that had not previously been major destinations for immigrants — saw foreign-born growth rates more than double the national average. (See figure 2 and Fastest Growing Minority Gateway Cities chart below.)

Foreign-born residents are also migrating away from urban areas to the suburbs. While more than two-fifths lived in a central city in a metropolitan area, the proportion living outside central cities but within a metropolitan area exceeded 50 percent. Not surprisingly, the 10 metro areas with the fastest growth in minority households serve as thriving immigrant gateways.

10 Fastest Growing Minority Gateway Cities

City

Population in 2000

Corresponding
metro area

Foreign born

English is second language

Hialeah, Florida

226,000

Miami

72 percent

93 percent

Santa Ana, California

338,000

Los Angeles

53 percent

80 percent

Daly City, California

104,000

San Francisco

52 percent

66 percent

Sunnyvale, California

132,000

San Francisco

39 percent

46 percent

Anaheim, California

328,000

Los Angeles

38 percent

55 percent

Chula Vista, California

174,000

San Diego

29 percent

53 percent

Pembroke Pines, Florida

137,000

Miami

29 percent

37 percent

Irving, Texas

192,000

Dallas

27 percent

38 percent

Bellevue, Washington

110,000

Seattle

25 percent

27 percent

Aurora, Colorado

276,000

Denver

16 percent

23 percent

U.S. Average

11 percent

18 percent

Source: U.S. Census Bureau and USA Today

Recent arrivals to the newest immigrant gateways often come from Asia or Mexico, are poorer than the native-born population, have low English proficiency, and lower rates of U.S. citizenship.9

It is important for churches to note that the nation’s two largest minority groups follow strikingly different paths. While African-Americans tend to migrate to areas with large black populations, Hispanics are more willing to settle in areas with few from their ethnic group.

“These are two major waves in America,” says William Frey, demographer at the Brookings Institution in Washington. “One is the black return to the South. ... The other is Hispanics going to places where everybody else is moving, following the jobs.”10

Church leaders need to pay careful attention to these emerging trends to respond to the changing ethnic realities within the communities they serve.

In most less-populated areas, minorities represent only 5.3 percent of households. In fact, the minority share is less than 5 percent in fully 1,000 of the nation’s 2,400 nonmetro counties. Being responsive to the spiritual needs of minorities, while still important, may be less of a priority for congregations serving such communities.11

Integration Models And Practices

A variety of models for integrating minorities within the church have been suggested over the past decade. Each has its pros and cons and no single solution applies to every ministry context. Pastors seeking assistance in this area should consult the AG Demographic and Church Research Network at http://www.demographics.ag.org. This department will help you understand the unique characteristics of your ministry context. In addition, I recommend further study before embarking on a paradigm shift, and I have included a suggested reading list.

As I interview pastors across the United States, it is apparent that the best practices within our Movement are evolving as rapidly as the demographic shifts that necessitate them. Pastors, inspired by the Holy Spirit, are creating new models and applying combinations of existing models in original and inventive ways. Our Movement is experiencing a journey of transformation. As congregations and communities evolve, their ability to apply these models will also evolve. Movement from one model to the next or even shifts within a model may take entire generations to develop. In fact, they often occur in tandem with the cultural assimilation of a particular ethnic group. Churches that are effective in integrating minority newcomers demonstrate a consistent and mission specific intentionality that does not waver over time. It is a core value of the congregation that influences nearly every aspect of its ministry. Pastor Steve Allen of Life Church International in Columbia, South Carolina, describes it like this:

“Intentionality is the key. What I mean by this is that every ministry has to demonstrate intentionality in terms of its relationship and committee structure. I want to see a mix of African-American, white, and Hispanic.”

The passion and intentionality demonstrated by Allen and other pastors living the reality of multiracial church ministry are inspirational; and, although their methods and ministry contexts differ, they are unified in their determination to reach their communities with the gospel.

After interviewing numerous pastors, I see three predominant models of racial integration within our Movement in the United States. They are homogeneous, heterogeneous, and synergistic, each representing a step on the continuum of full racial integration.

Homogeneous model

A homogeneous congregation is predominantly uniform in its ethnic or racial makeup, extending from the leadership to its congregants. This model tends to closely mirror the demography of the community it serves. We often associate this model with rural communities lacking racial diversity, but homogeneous congregations often spring up to serve the needs of recent immigrants or unique people groups. Steve Allen states: “The church should reflect its community. If you are within the Amish community, try to reach them. Not every church can be as intentional about race as we are in the south, but every church should reflect the demographic of its community and try to assimilate new people as the community changes.”

Some churches that utilize the homogeneous model are comprised largely of first-generation immigrants who lack proficiency in English. It can be reasonably argued that a single-race congregation cannot be considered a model of integration. However, homogeneous churches in gateway cities serve a valuable role in the cultural and spiritual assimilation of newcomers. Often these newcomers represent the poorest strata of society and need considerable help in finding employment and housing, learning English, finding legal counsel, and qualifying for U.S. citizenship. Qualifying for U.S. citizenship is a complicated process that often takes many years to accomplish, regardless of the circumstances of one’s arrival.

Allen cautions, however, that building one’s entire ministry around a single population can be shortsighted: “Second-generation people speak English and they want to learn in English. There are some good Hispanic churches, but if you are an all-Spanish church, you need to have something going on in the English/Spanish realm or you will become obsolete.”

Pastor Wallace Horton of Hope Chapel in Berwick, Maine, wrestles with these realities each day. Horton is working to blend two formerly homogeneous churches, one Indonesian and one Caucasian, into a single congregation. Future plans include the integration of an African congregation. According to Horton: “The integration model you use must be effective with the people group you seek to reach. Your timing must be responsive to their felt needs, not based on your timetable. We need to strive toward relevance in everything we do.”

Given the demographic realities of our changing world, a church that is largely homogeneous today should continually seek ways to broaden its scope of ministry. Loss of relevance is a paramount risk for homogeneous churches. The world is changing, and the needs of these communities are evolving rapidly. It is important to monitor subtle changes in your community. Horton states: “Everywhere else, Hispanic populations are growing; but in New England, the Asian population has mushroomed. We have Vietnamese, Malaysians, Indonesians, and Chinese, and we need qualified people to minister to these groups. We need to rethink our philosophy toward home missions. What is it to win the whole world for Christ and lose our own country?”

Russell C. Rosser, a retired pastor from Flushing, New York, describes this paradigm shift as the difference between a port and a fort: “What happens when a church becomes a port rather than a fort? … The church that remains a fort — no matter how large their mission budget, it begins to shrink as does the congregation. The church that embraces the world around them grows — so does their mission budget. But greater is the movement of God within the ethnic congregation that touches the world because of their extended family.”

For several decades now, demographers have been warning that the browning of America will influence every aspect of life as we know it. Homogeneous churches must seek ways to respond constructively to these changing paradigms or risk becoming a fort — a citadel effective only for safeguarding a slowly dwindling population while keeping others out.12

Heterogeneous model

Churches utilizing a heterogeneous model are comprised of a variety of races and ethnic groups with varying levels of involvement in the leadership and ministries of the church. At its most basic level, a church using this model may share facilities with another ethnic group with few opportunities for shared ministry or leadership. Pastor Phil Hilliard of Bethany Assembly of God in Alhambra, California, notes that his congregation is host to five foreign language groups. While three are divisions of his congregation, two are independent entities. All pay a monthly facility use fee that helps defray expenses in pricey Los Angeles County. In some cases, this partnership may be further developed. For instance, at First Assembly of God in San Antonio, Texas, Pastor R. Wayne Clark shares with enthusiasm about his congregation’s growing Korean ministry:

“Our congregation has a history of being traditional, but we are slowly moving away from that. We have about 30 Koreans in our congregation. They have their own pastor, a missionary from David Paul Yonggi Cho’s church in Seoul, Korea, who is a member of our staff. Their Sunday morning services are conducted separately in Korean, but they join with us for Sunday evenings and special events.”

In the high rent districts of California, Jeffrey Campbell, pastor of Hacienda Heights Assembly of God, led his church in a dramatic paradigm shift 9 years ago. His church abandoned a renting model in favor of full integration with the Spanish, Filipino, and Korean congregations that rented its facilities.

Raised in Latin America as the son of missionary parents, Campbell credits his heritage with helping him adapt a multiracial leadership model.

While the church continues to hold separate worship services in Spanish, Filipino, and Korean, outreach, worship teams, missions activities, leadership, and youth activities occur in blended settings. Leadership is shared among a team of pastors that includes Korean, Filipino, and Spanish speaking associate pastors who conduct the foreign-language services. Discipleship occurs predominantly through Sunday School classes and home cell groups.

As is often the case, this paradigm shift has had its share of challenges. Campbell describes the evolution: “I prayed and the Lord gave me a vision for our community. I realized we had to change. I felt we shouldn’t charge rent, but work together to increase the Kingdom. Southern California is so multicultural that it doesn’t make sense to have 10 Assemblies of God churches devoted to different ethnic groups. It takes pastoral vision and leadership to bridge the gaps and bring diverse congregations together. Some people feel we should let each culture reach its own, but I challenge churches to consider adopting minority congregations in their midst.”

Synergistic model

The third model is the synergistic model. Synergism is the “combined or correlated action of different organs or parts of the body, as of muscles working together.” Implicit in the definition of synergy is an understanding that the cumulative action of these diverse parts is greater than the sum of their individual efforts. A synergistic church is one in which all races are fully involved in every aspect of the church’s ministry and leadership. A synergistic church has no color line. The church’s mission statement reflects this core ideal and intentionality is evident in all aspects of its administration, including the way it markets itself. Synergistic churches are in touch with their communities. They strive to be responsive to change. Maintaining the status quo is less important than being relevant to their culture. The ethnic diversity of the board and pastoral staff are representative of the various people groups the church serves. This diversity is also reflected from the podium and in the worship style. Finally, the synergistic church is a vital, growing, Spirit-filled community in which the gospel is being preached and the lost are brought to Christ.

It is my belief that the synergistic model is God’s ideal for His body, and it is most congruent with the spiritual unity characterized by early New Testament churches such as Jerusalem and Antioch.

As I travel the country, I have come to realize that synergistic churches are unique, and many churches within our Movement are making positive strides in this direction.

New Life Assembly of God in Pembroke Pines, Florida, is another example of a synergistic church. Founded by Pastor Maria Khaleel 14 years ago, NLA is comprised of approximately 30 nationality groups resulting in a Body that is 35 percent Caribbean, 35 percent Hispanic, 15 percent American (native to the United States both black and white), and 15 percent other. NLA is a dynamic, Spirit-filled congregation, of which 80 percent have come to Christ through the ministry of the church.

According to Pastor Khaleel, “All races and ethnicities within our congregation are integrally involved in every area of ministry, and the overall life of the church. It has just happened naturally, because we love and treat everyone the same. We are no respecter of persons.” The church Web site supports this with member photographs depicting a broad range of diversity.

Located in Southeast Florida in a residential suburb between Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, the city of Pembroke Pines grew 110 percent between 1990 and 2000 to 137,000 residents, making it one of the fastest growing, emerging immigrant gateways.13

Khaleel states, “Our area is transient. Many people enter the United States through south Florida and then move on to other parts of the country, or return to their native countries. It is estimated that churches in south Florida experience approximately a 30 percent annual attrition rate. This means that a church must replace 30 percent of its congregation every year. To be a growing church is a real challenge, but God has given us favor, and seeds of our ministry are now sown through the Caribbean, Latin America, and the United States.”

Sheffield Family Life Center in Kansas City, Missouri, is another synergistic church. The Kansas City area has a troubled history of racial unrest stemming back to the Civil War era when pro-slavery Missourians battled with Kansans seeking to enter the Union as a nonslave state. SFLC has a long history of working to heal these rifts.

According to the church’s history, Pastor Frank Brewer led his all-white congregation to hold joint meetings with an all-black congregation as far back as the 1930s. Over the years, as the church’s name, leadership, and location changed, its effectiveness as a multiracial church wavered. When George Westlake, Jr., assumed leadership of SFLC in 1973, it had reverted to an all-white congregation. Pastor Westlake was determined to change this, and he purposefully reached out to the African-American community.

Now co-pastored by Westlake and his son, George Westlake III, SFLC is living out its historic commitment to racial unity from its campus in the city’s inner core. A visit to the church’s Web site reveals consistent proclamation of its core values:

“We rejoice in the opportunity we have been given by our Heavenly Father to add to His family people from every race, background, and culture.”

Like many midwestern cities, Kansas City is predominantly white with blacks representing 31 percent of the population and Hispanic/Latinos at 7 percent. While this represents a slight increase in the Hispanic/Latino population, the rate of change is significantly lower than the dramatic increases in other parts of the country.14

Clearly, the Westlakes operate in a different context than churches in gateway cities like Pembroke Pines, but their intentionality is no less apparent. On a recent visit to the church, I observed a beautiful unity in action. Worship was spontaneous and Spirit-inspired, with a blend of musical styles led by a multiracial team. The warmth was palpable. Asians embraced Hispanics. Blacks knelt with whites for prayer. As a mixed-race couple, both my wife and I felt welcome and were quickly embraced by the community.

Westlake III states that the staff and board work hard to create an atmosphere of unity: “We don’t do things to separate and stress racial differences. Rather, we reach and teach people in the same manner. We don’t try to bring unity by segmenting a population for special treatment; we emphasize unity across the board. Widening the chasm would be a great detriment in our church. You don’t attain unity by promoting separation.”

The challenges facing synergistic churches are manifold, but the blessings are worth the effort. Many who have walked this journey have paid a great price. Ask Wally Horton. He lost more than half of his original congregation when he led his church toward a multiracial model. Wally is not alone. Steve Allen lost about 300 Anglo-Americans and half a million dollars in tithes over a 6-month period when his church changed its ministry paradigm.

Why then am I suggesting that pastors embrace this journey? Census data clearly shows that minority populations are increasing dramatically across the nation. In fact, the impact of these trends is clear within our own Movement.

In 1995, the AG had 271 churches where no single ethnic group represented a majority. Ten years later that number has risen to 420. While these numbers represent only a small fraction of our churches, their growth is impressive. In just a decade, the number of multiracial congregations increased by 55 percent. This phenomenon is even more compelling when compared with statistics pertaining to Anglo (white) churches. During the same decade, the number of Anglo churches dropped from 9,032 to 8,564, a decrease of 5 percent. While Hispanic churches did increase in number by 27.6 percent, their rate of increase was half that of their multiracial peers. While multiracial churches experienced a 44 percent increase in average attendance over the same 10 years, attendance at Anglo (white) churches grew by just 8 percent and Hispanic churches by 18 percent.

If homogeneous churches represent God’s ideal, why are their growth rates so dramatically outpaced by multiracial churches? The answer is simple: Synergistic churches reflect God’s heart for humankind. He is the Creator of a marvelously diverse humanity. Within the church, there should be no division. The emphasis on inclusion and disciple making is a recurring theme throughout the New Testament. Galatians 3:26 is a strong reminder: “You are all sons of God through faith in Christ” and, consequently, “discrimination is incompatible with what the gospel of Christ teaches.”15

The pastors I spoke with are courageous leaders guiding their flocks on an exciting journey. The landscape in which they minister differs as does their pace, but all have their eyes firmly fixed on the finish line. Universally, they describe a deepening of their spiritual walks and revitalization within different aspects of their ministries. Clark shares how his Korean members have ignited a passion for prayer within the rest of the Body. Khaleel states that 4,000 people have been saved over 14 years of ministry.

Campbell says his only regret is that he did not move to integrate his church sooner, because “culture should never supersede the teachings of the Bible.”

Horton perhaps best describes their vision: “My understanding is broader. My vision has become without walls, without compromise. Many of these people come out of such persecution, and they have such a hunger for God. When you worship with them, come expecting. I see healing when I pray for the sick now. My faith has been challenged. The power didn’t stop at the Upper Room. We need to press in. It has changed my ministry.”

One hundred years ago, William Seymour dreamed of a day when all races would come together as a common family in the Lord. All across America, AG pastors are accepting the challenge to meet the needs of minority newcomers. Their commitment to multiracial ministry is intentional and their passion is contagious. God is blessing their endeavors with an outpouring of His Holy Spirit. On a daily basis they are making Seymour’s dream a reality within our Movement. It is a timely accomplishment.

MARIO H. GUERREIRO, D.Min., is director of enrollment management at Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, Springfield, Missouri.

Endnotes

1. Cecil M. Roebeck, Jr., “Azusa Street: 100 Years Later,” Enrichment 11, no. 2 (2006): 27,28.

2. “How Holy Roller Gets Religion,” Los Angeles Herald, 10 September 1906, 7.

3. Frank Bartleman, Azusa Street The Roots of Modern-day Pentecost (Gainesville, Fla.: Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1980), 61,54,55.

4. Scripture quotations taken from the New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission. (www.Lockman.org)

5. William A. Henry III, “Beyond the Melting Pot,” Time, 9 April 1990.

6. Thom and Marcia Hopler, Reaching the World Next Door: How To Spread the Gospel in the Midst of Many Cultures (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 81.

7. Robert H. Mounce, New International Biblical Commentary: Matthew (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1985), 268.

8. Luke J. Larsen, The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2003 (U.S. Census Bureau, August 2004), 1,2.

9. Rick Hampson, “New Brooklyns Replace White Suburbs,” USA Today, 19 May 2003, A01.

10. Paul Overberg and Haya El Nasser, “Minority Groups Breaking Patterns,” USA Today, at http://www.keepmedia.com/pubs/USATODAY/2005/08/11/964454?ba=m&bi=1&bp=24 on May 29, 2006.

11. Larsen,The Foreign-Born, 2.

12. Henry III, Beyond the Melting Pot, at http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,969770,00.html on May 29, 2006.

13. Hampson, “New Brooklyns,” A01.

14. Gerald L. Hoff, Jinwen Cai, and Dale Giedinghagen, Community Health Assessment 2003 (Kansas City, Mo.: Kansas City Health Department, May 2003), 2.

15. Timothy George and Robert Smith, Jr., A Mighty Long Journey: Reflections on Racial Reconciliation (Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000), 55.

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